The parables of Jesus have continually been used as a foundation for Christian ethical teaching. Perhaps the maximum apparent instance will be the story of the sheep and goats (Matthew 25: 31-forty six) in which judgment is surpassed primarily based on how human beings dealt with “the least of these who are individuals of my circle of relatives.” The memories of Jesus have popular interpretations, lots of which have been challenged in recent years based totally on greater accurate historic interpretation of the context wherein they had been instructed.
In her recent ebook Short Stories through Jesus, Amy-Jill Levine gives interpretations of familiar parables in approaches that challenge some conventional ethical and theological perspectives. She emphasizes the way Jewish hearers of the time might had been impressed and amazed through the messages. In a current lecture series given at Mercer University in Macon, Georgia, Levine highlighted the way that counting and inclusion were disregarded in shows of 3 familiar parables. Ethical implications stand out in those 3 parables because traditional views neglect failures of counting that exclude those Jesus might include. Re-examining these parables results in marvel for present day readers.
The tale of a lost sheep in Luke 15:four-7 seems to make a clean point about counting. Someone had a hundred sheep and, noticing one was lacking, went all out to discover it. Often we anticipate this is a shepherd because we think the person who does the rescuing is God or Jesus “the good shepherd” – however the tale does not say that. In the story it’s far the proprietor who realizes the loss, leaves the sheep, and searches for the missing one. It might now not were responsible conduct then or now for a shepherd to disregard the welfare of a whole flock as this owner did. In real existence people in obligation should look out for the bigger group.
In the tale it is the proprietor – now not always the shepherd – who is careful sufficient about counting to be aware that among a large variety of sheep handiest one is lacking. In Jesus’ time, having that kind of stock control could be extraordinarily rare. Someone rich enough to have that many sheep usually could not have cared approximately just one. But this proprietor cares sufficient to know and to in my opinion move all out to encompass absolutely everyone that belongs to him – and to have fun when he rescues even one in every of them. This isn’t normal conduct and might be visible then as now as very exaggerated, but then parables concentrate on exaggeration.
Next comes a surprise. Levine sees the Prodigal Son tale as about counting. We usually awareness on the go back of the more youthful son whose repentance is greeted with forgiveness and love. Levine, then again, suspects the young son is a spoiled brat out to control daddy another time. The father instructions his servants to throw a party and neglects to permit the trustworthy son, running inside the fields, recognise approximately it. I constantly heard that the older son refused to come back, however a better appearance shows that he changed into disregarded when invites have been despatched and this is why he refused to wait whilst a slave told him approximately the birthday celebration.
The older son lived an moral and responsible existence, but we have visible him as a villain within the story rather than a victim. Levine ends via seeing the importance of counting and which include the righteous as well as the wayward as an important factor of the story. No doubt this will come as a surprise to many Christians these days who’ve wanted to equate the older brother with poor kinds of Judaism, as Augustine did.
A 0.33 story of inclusion is still more unexpected. The Pharisee praying inside the temple (Luke 18: nine-14) is commonly visible as bragging about accurate works even as the lowly tax collector becomes the model of repentance that pleases God. A comparable situation today might have Billy Graham and a drug supplier praying in church at the identical time. We may additionally agree or disagree with Graham on many things, however in our time he has been a reputable image of integrity and piety as Pharisees have been in Jesus’ time. A drug provider would no longer be promising to avoid committing future evil acts – simply because the tax collector did now not promise to stop doing what his contemporaries thought offensive.
Levine’s translation of the myth overturns the conventional interpretation that the tax collector become desired over the Pharisee. Rather, she shows each were justified and that the mercy shown the tax collector changed into associated with the righteousness of the Pharisee. Here we see Luther’s view of the competition of works righteousness and beauty overturned because the accomplishments of the more religious assist out the less spiritual. The Pharisee, even though unintentionally, enables consist of someone contemporaries idea did no longer count number. In Jesus’ day that gave the impression of a demotion for the Pharisee but today we’re amazed to learn the Pharisee was no longer denounced in favor of the tax collector.
After the lectures, I mentioned them over lunch with my classmate Sam Oni, the man from Ghana who included Mercer University inside the Nineteen Sixties. As Sam discussed his days studying Zen Buddhism beneath Alan Watts at Berkeley, it befell to us that Levine’s interpretation makes the Pharisee and tax collector a sort of Yin and Yang – as two reputedly contradictory forces that emerge as a concord while seen collectively.
The history of Christianity has been marked by way of many conflicts over what views must be covered or excluded from the proper humans of God. Levine’s reinterpretation of these 3 well-known parables indicates that Jesus stood for ethics of inclusion that counted plenty of people who were excluded – together with traits related to Pharisees commonly vilified by means of Christianity. The phrases of Jesus keep to marvel and project the ethical requirements of each age.